Welcome! If you are passionate about wild animals, we invite you to read this post in which we will tell you about the chimpanzee. We will start with the characteristics, then the habitat, food, reproduction, predators, and relevant information about these wild jungle animals. This specimen is fascinating and undoubtedly deserves to be studied in detail because it belongs to the species closest to humans in terms of specific traits of DNA they share.
The chimp lives and travels in small groups. They eat plants, ants, termites, and occasionally small monkeys, pigs, and antelope. They delight in their sounds, communicating, and expressing their moods with a variety of grunts, roars, and screams.
The chimpanzees lives in the rainforest and savannah of equatorial Africa. Have light, black, or mottled skin and large protruding ears. Their black hair turns white with age. The demand for live chimpanzees for zoos and research has led to a significant decline in their population. The survival of the species is endangered in nature.
Chimpanzees have also demonstrated the ability to use and make tools. Share and cooperate for the common good. Express complex emotions and communicate using human sign language.
Taxonomy for chimpanzee
The taxonomic classification of the Chimpanzee is precise and exciting because of its particular. The characteristics science has agreed to grant taxonomic categories of the Chimpanzee similar to those of man himself. Such as the primate order and the Hominidae family.
Let us look at the complete taxonomy of the Chimpanzee:
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Subreino: Eumetazoa
- Branch: Bilateria
- Grade: Coelomata
- Series: Deuterostomia
- Phylum: Chordata
- Subphylum: Gnathostomata
- Superclass: Tetrapoda
- Class: Mammalia
- Subclass: Eutheria
- Superorder: Euarchontoglires Order: Primates
- Suborder: Catarrhini
- Family: Hominidae
- Subfamily: Homininae
- Genus: Pan
- Species: Troglodytes
Genetic analysis suggests that humans and chimpanzees separated four to eight million years ago. At least 98% of human and chimpanzee genomes are identical. The taxonomic category of the ape locates chimpanzees as a single species, Pan troglodytes. (The so-called pygmy chimpanzee, or bonobo, is a distinct and independent species, P. paniscus.)
Documentary on apes:
Within the chimpanzee phylum four subspecies for P. troglodytes are recognized:
- The tschego, or Central African chimpanzee (P. troglodytes troglodytes), also known as the common chimpanzee in continental Europe.
- The West African or masked chimpanzee (P. troglodytes verus), known as the common chimpanzee in Great Britain.
- East African or long-haired chimpanzee (P. troglodytes schweinfurthii)
- The Nigerian-Cameroon chimpanzee (P. troglodytes ellioti, formerly classified as P. troglodytes vellerosus)
In addition to the taxonomic classification of the chimpanzee offered above, it is possible to specify the following characteristics for a much more complete and detailed classification of the chimpanzee:
- Type: Mammal
- Diet: Omnivore
- Group Name: Community
- Average Life In The Wild: 45 Years
- Size: from 1 meter to 1.70 meters
- Weight: 70 to 130 Pounds
- Status: Endangered
- Current Population Trend: Declining
Chimpanzee evolution to human
The evolution of the Chimpanzee has gone through several stages. Each one of them has allowed the species to get closer and closer to man and to what they are today within the animal kingdom. Each of these stages can be appreciated in the distribution mentioned below.
At some point in history, the ancestors of humans and chimpanzees separated and evolved differently. However, they share a common ancestor.
The first Primates
The most comprehensive catalog of Great Apes genome diversity to date provides information on the evolution of primates. This information reveals that chimpanzees have a much more complex genetic history than humans.
In a new study, researchers sequenced a total of 79 great apes, including chimpanzees, bonobos, eastern and western gorillas, orangutans, and humans, as well as seven subspecies of apes. The animals were wild and born in captivity to populations in Africa and Southeast Asia.
Much attention has been paid to the study of diversity among human genomes.
Despite the genetic similarity between humans and chimpanzees, the two species are quite different. Some scientists had hypothesized that the differences are derived from the “missing” parts of human genomes compared to the genomes of chimpanzees. However, the new study refuted that theory by showing that the missing parts were mostly non-functional.
Arrival of the Chimpanzees
With our great brains, the ability to speak and upright posture, we humans have long assumed that our species must have reached the genetic well. However, a controversial new study challenges the idea that we are advancing rapidly on the evolutionary fast track as our chimpanzee brothers swayed in the trees.
Mutations occur spontaneously, and most are neutral or harmful. Nevertheless, sometimes, a beneficial mutation occurs in an individual and spreads through the population over time. A process is known as positive selection: the genes that carry these useful mutations confer evolutionary advantages that allow organisms to adapt and thrive. Changes become “fixed” in the genome.
Ancestors of Chimpanzees
Scientists generally believed that traits such as superior cognitive abilities were due to explosions of adaptive evolution, in which key genes accumulated beneficial mutations that contributed to the evolution of the human species.
To test that idea, sequences of approximately 14,000 genes from the chimpanzee and the human genome were analyzed. They compared the rates of two types of mutations: those that alter the shape of the protein product of the gene and those that do not modify the structure of the protein. Genes that have been changed by positive selection have significantly more mutations that alter the protein.
The results, published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, were surprising. Chimpanzees had 233 positively selected genes, while humans had only 154, implying that chimpanzees have adapted more to their environment than humans to theirs.
“It is human selfishness to put ourselves on a pedestal,” says molecular anthropologist Morris Goodman. “I was attracted to the newspaper because it seemed to be eroding this desire to make us all very extra special. At the molecular level, humans are not necessarily exceptional in terms of adaptive changes”.
Humans and chimpanzees are so similar that it is difficult to determine whether genes are the product of positive selection.
Where do chimpanzees live in the wild?
The Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), is a species of monkey that, along with the bonobo, is more closely related to humans. They are found in tropical forests and savannas of equatorial Africa from the Gambia in the west to Lake Albert, Lake Victoria, and northwest Tanzania in the east. They spend most of their days in the treetops.
Characteristics of chimpanzees
Individuals of this species vary considerably in size and appearance. Chimpanzees are approximately 1 to 1.7 meters tall when erect and weigh about 32 to 60 kilograms (70-130 pounds).
Males tend to be larger and more robust than females. Chimpanzees are covered by a layer of brown or black hair, but their faces are naked except for a short white beard.
The color of the skin is generally white except for the face, hands, and feet, which are black. The faces of younger animals may be pinkish or whitish. Among older males and females, the forehead often becomes bald, and the back turns gray.
The female chimpanzee has a unique offspring at any time of year after a gestation period of approximately eight months. The newborn weighs about 1.8 kg (almost 4 pounds), is almost helpless, and clings to the skin of the mother’s belly as it moves. From about 6 months to 2 years, the youngster rides on the mother’s back.
Weaning takes place at about 5 years of age. Females usually begin to reproduce around age 13, but often only two offspring survive during their lifetime.
What do chimpanzees eat?
The chimpanzee is generally fruity and herbivorous. However, there is also the carnivorous chimpanzee that consumes insects, eggs, and meat, including carrion. They have a tremendously varied diet that includes hundreds of known foods. They wake up at dawn, and their day is spent both in the trees and on the ground.
After a long rest at noon, the afternoon is usually the most intense feeding period. In trees, where most of the feeding takes place, chimpanzees use their hands and feet to move. They also jump and sway their arms (brachial) skillfully from branch to branch.
Movement over a significant distance usually takes place on the ground. The chimpanzee’s phylum suggests that although they are capable of walking upright, they move more often on four legs, leaning forward on the knuckles of their hands (walking with their knuckles).
At night, they usually sleep on trees in nests built with branches and leaves. The chimpanzee cannot swim, but they will get into the water.
The diet of the chimpanzees is mainly vegetarian and consists of more than 300 different elements, mainly fruits, berries, leaves, flowers, and seeds — also eggs and chicks of birds, many insects, and occasionally carrion.
The carnivorous chimpanzee also hunts, both alone and in groups, stalking and killing several mammals such as monkeys or wild pigs. They also seem to use certain plants medicinally to cure diseases and expel intestinal parasites.
The world’s leading authority on chimpanzees is Dr. Jane Goodall, who, beginning in 1960, studied them for decades in their natural habitat. Early in her work with chimpanzees, discovered a surprising new answer to the question, “What do chimpanzees eat? When she observed them using thin sticks to catch termites in a termite mound.
Dr. Goodall received another surprising answer to this question when she observed groups of male chimpanzees hunting organized red colobus monkeys. After capturing their prey, the chimpanzees ate all parts of the monkey, including the brain. Sometimes they also shared some of the meat with chimpanzees who had not participated in the hunt.
However, despite their hunting behavior, only a tiny percentage, perhaps as small as 2% of a wild chimpanzee’s diet consists of meat or insects. Relationships between different chimpanzee communities tend to be hostile. Intruders in the home range of a group can be attacked, and adult males participate in border patrols.
Rarely, a group may invade a neighboring territory that is much smaller in size, because it results in the deaths of the smaller group.
Infanticide and cannibalism have been observed in adult males and, to a lesser extent, adult females. Infants are victims not only of neighboring groups but also of newly immigrated females. The likely cause of such violence is competition within and outside the group between same-sex chimpanzees.
Sometimes a male and female will form a society, participate in exclusive mating relationships by leaving other members of the group and remaining on the periphery of the group. This strategy, however, brings an increased risk of attack by neighboring groups.
What is chimpanzee behavior?
These animals live in social communities of several dozen animals and can get used to African rainforests, forests, and grasslands. Although they usually walk on all fours (walking with their knuckles), chimpanzees can stand and walk upright.
By swinging from branch to branch, they can also move quite efficiently in trees, where they do most of their food. Chimpanzees often sleep in trees as well, using leaf nests.
Social behavior of Chimpanzees
For a complete definition of the Chimpanzee, it is necessary to say that they have more extroverted dispositions than gorillas or orangutans. They are very sociable and live in flexible groups known as communities, or groups of units, which are based on associations between adult males within a range of home or territory.
The home ranges of forest-dwelling communities may be as small as a few square kilometers. However, ranges covering hundreds of square kilometers are known among savannah communities. A community can count from 20 or fewer to more than 100 members. Each consists of several subgroups of variable size and unstable composition.
In the classification of the chimpanzee, there is a social predominance, with adult males dominating adult females and adolescent males. Within a community, there are two or three times more adult females than adult males; the number of adults is approximately equal to the number of immature individuals.
Communities are generally divided into subgroups called parts, which vary widely in size. The hierarchy of dominance among male chimpanzees is very fluid; individuals associated with each other, unite and leave different subgroups completely free.
The dominant male (alpha) of a group can monopolize ovulated females through possessive behavior. On the other hand, gang attacks by subordinate males can expel an alpha male. Males spend their entire lives in the community in which they are born, but from time to time, a young male may move to another community with his mother.
Unlike males, most females leave their birth group to join a neighboring group when they mature around age 11. Female chimpanzees spend most of their time with their offspring or other females.
Those with dependent offspring are more likely to go alone or in small groups within narrow central areas. Females are known to form coalitions against an intimidating adult male or newly immigrated female.
Cognitive psychology Chimpanzees
Cognitive psychology proposes another way of studying the causal mechanisms of animal behavior. Cognitive psychology aims to explain the behavior of an animal in terms of its mental organization for information processing. That is to say, how the animal acquires, stores, and acts on the information present in its world.
By studying an animal’s cognitive mechanisms, one can study how the animal perceives, learns, memorizes, and makes decisions.
While most students of animal behavior accept the idea that animal consciousness is a possible possibility, some argue that it is not yet possible to know whether a particular animal experiences consciousness because it is an individual, subjective, and ultimately unknowable state.
In contrast, cognitive ethologists (a separate group of animal behaviorists), in particular, American biophysicist and behaviorist Donald Griffin, argue that animals are undoubtedly conscious since individuals of a wide variety of species behave with apparent intentions of achieving specific goals.
How do chimpanzees use tools?
Several tools are used in various contexts. The chimpanzee “catches” termites and ants with probes made from grass stems, vines, branches, peeled barks, and central leaf veins. They open hard nuts using stones, roots, and wood, such as hammers or anvils, and use “leaf sponges” (a handful of folded leaves or moss) to drink water. Branches and leaves fall off and show during courtship.
In threatening contexts, the chimpanzee throws rocks, drags, and throws branches. Sticks are used to inspect dead pythons or other unknown objects that could be dangerous. The leaves are used hygienically when cleaning the mouth or other dirty body parts.
The chimp also uses different tools in succession as a set of tools. For example, chimpanzees in the Congo Basin first dig into termite mounds with a strong stick and then catch individual termites with a long, thin stick.
Tools are also used in combination as composite tools. Chimpanzees in the Guinea region push leaf sponges into tree holes containing water and then remove wet sponges using sticks. Therefore, chimpanzees differ locally in their repertoire of tool use, and younger animals acquire tool-use behaviors from their elders.
Such cultural differences are also observed in food consumption and gestural communication. Indeed, chimpanzees possess culture when it is defined as the transmission of information from generation to generation through social learning shared by the majority of members of the same age or sex class in a given group.
How do chimpanzees reproduce?
Females can give birth at any time of year, usually to a single baby who grabs its mother’s coat and then rides on its back until the age of two. Females reach reproductive age at 13, while males are not considered adults until they are 16.
Although chimpanzees and humans are closely related, apes have significantly suffered in human hands. These great apes are endangered and still threatened by bushmeat hunters and habitat destruction. Like us, chimpanzees are very social animals; they care for their young for years and can live up to 50 years.
Oestrus females have a prominent swelling of the pink skin of the perineum that lasts two to three weeks and occurs every four to six weeks. The gestation period for chimpanzees is 237 days.
Once born, a baby chimpanzee clings to its mother’s breast, much like a human baby. The baby chimpanzee develops slowly. When a chimpanzee is born, it is very helpless and has very few grasping skills. Parental care of the mother is crucial at this point.
The chimp can sit up at five months and stand up when he is six months old. A baby chimpanzee is born with a pretty pink face and a lock of white hair on the back. This hair disappears with age. Does not have a full coat of hair; its coat grows and thickens as it matures.
The chimpanzee exhibits sophisticated social strategies, such as cooperation in combat and the cultivation of coalitions and alliances through combination, reciprocal preparation and exchange of meat (sometimes in exchange for mating opportunities).
A muscular chimpanzee called an alpha male, for example, may interfere with its rival in preparation with a third because such a coalition could jeopardize the alpha state. On the other hand, the third might show strategic opportunism in such a situation, as its assistance to either party could determine which of its superiors prevails. Chimpanzees, therefore, seem to have some concept of barter.
They consecrate, reconcile, and retaliate during fights and share emotions and aspects of psychology similar to those found in humans: self-recognition, curiosity, sympathy, pain, and attribution.
Although chimpanzees care for orphans, they also annoy disabled chimpanzees, conceal information that would harm themselves, and manipulate others for their benefit by expressing deceptive postures, gestures, and facial expressions.
Given the similarity, below are specified some differences and similarities between humans and chimpanzees that will serve to establish where these two species coincide and where they differ:
They use tools
For many years, humans were considered to be the only animals that used tools. The 1960 observation of chimpanzees using sharp twigs to catch termites has changed this ever since. Both humans and chimpanzees can modify their environment to forge tools to help with everyday challenges.
The chimpanzees will make lances, use stones such as hammers and anvils, and grind the leaves into pulp to use as improvised sponges. It is believed that, as a result of walking upright, our forelegs were much freer to use tools, and we have refined the use of tools to create a modern art of living.
Both can see in Color
Humans have white around their irises, while the chimpanzee generally has a dark brown color. This makes it easier to see where other humans are looking, and there are several theories as to why this is so. It can be an adaptation to more complex social situations, where it is an advantage to see others who are looking and thinking.
It can help when hunting silently in groups, where eye direction is vital for communication. Alternatively, it may merely be a purposeless genetic mutation: white is also seen around the iris in some chimpanzees.
Both humans and the chimpanzee can see in Color, helping them choose ripe fruits and plants to eat and have binocular vision, their eyes pointing forward in the same direction.
This helps to see in-depth and is crucial for hunting, rather than eyes to the sides of the head, as in the case of rabbits that help to avoid being hunted.
Both humans and the chimpanzee are capable of bipedal (two-legged) walking. Chimpanzees often do this to see later but prefer to move on all fours.
Humans have been walking upright since childhood and have developed bowl-shaped pelvises to support their internal organs as they do so. The chimpanzee, leaning forward during movement, does not need to hold their organs with the pelvis and therefore have wider hips.
This makes childbirth much easier for chimpanzees than for humans, whose bowl-shaped pelvis is in opposition to a giant birth canal.
Differences between man and chimpanzee:
Human feet are straight with the toes at the front to help push directly while walking, while chimpanzees’ feet have large opposable toes and resemble strong hands more than feet. They are used for climbing and crawling, with lateral, diagonal, or rotational movements.
Do not take long-term partners
Bonobos are recognized for their sexual appetite. Common chimpanzees may be angry or violent, but they deactivate any situation for sexual pleasure. They also greet and show affection through sexual stimulation. Common chimpanzees do not engage in recreational sex, and mating only takes ten or fifteen seconds, while eating or doing something else.
Friendships and emotional attachments have no relation to who common chimpanzee mates with. A female in heat will usually mate with several males, who sometimes patiently wait their turn one after the other.
Humans experience sexual pleasure, like bonobos. However, even sex for reproduction alone takes much longer and requires more effort. Long-Term associations naturally form as a result.
Unlike humans, chimpanzees have no concept of jealousy or sexual competence, as they do not take long-term partners.
The chimpanzee and the human are omnivorous (they eat plants and meat). Humans are more carnivorous than chimpanzees and have more refined intestines for the digestion of meat. Chimpanzees occasionally hunt and kill other mammals, often monkeys, but are otherwise limited to fruits and sometimes insects.
According to our digestive system and the lifestyles of the existing tribes, it is believed that humans have evolved to eat meat at least once every several days. Humans also tend to eat at certain times to eat meals rather than eating continuously throughout the day, another carnivorous trait.
This may be because meats are only available after a successful hunt, so they are consumed in large quantities, but infrequently. Chimpanzees regularly graze on fruits, while most humans do not eat more than three times a day.
Language and facial expressions
Chimpanzees have elaborate greetings and communications that depend on the social status of the chimpanzees they communicate with. They communicate verbally using a variety of shouts, grunts, and other vocalizations.
Most of their communication, however, is through gestures and facial expressions. Many of their facial expressions (surprise, smile, supplication, comfort) are the same as those used by humans.
However, humans smile when they show their teeth, which is a sign of aggression or danger to chimpanzees and many other animals. A much greater part of human communication is done through vocalizations.
Humans only have sophisticated vocal cords, which allows us a wide variety of sounds, but prevents us from drinking and breathing simultaneously, just like chimpanzees. Also, we have very muscular tongues and lips, which allows us to manipulate our voices precisely.
This is why we have pointy chins while chimpanzees have receding chins. We attach our lip muscles to the prominent chin. However, chimpanzees lack many of these muscles and therefore do not need a prominent chin.
The chimp spends a great deal of time socializing. Much of their socialization is to groom each other. Juvenile and teenage chimpanzees often play, chase, and tickle each other, just like adults with their offspring. Signs of affection include hugs and kisses, which are performed between chimpanzees of any age or sex.
Bonobos are uniquely playful, and almost all displays of affection are performed sexually, regardless of sex. Chimpanzees strengthen friendships by spending much time preparing each other. Humans spend a similar amount of time socializing, though more talking than preparing.
However, much of the inconsistent chatter we produce is simply a more sophisticated version of chimpanzee preparation. This serves little more than to strengthen our relationship ties. Humans also demonstrate stronger relationships through physical contact: a pat on the back, a hug, or a friendly push.
The sizes of social groups of primates closely reflect the size of your brain. Chimpanzees have about 50 close friends and acquaintances, while humans have between 150 and 200.
The brain of a chimpanzee has an average volume of 370 ml. Conversely, humans have a brain size of 1350 ml on average.
However, brain size alone is not an absolute indicator of intelligence. There have been Nobel Prize winners with brains ranging from less than 900 ml to more than 2000 ml.
The structure and organization of the various parts of the brain are a better way to determine intelligence. Human brains have a large surface area because they are much more wrinkled than chimpanzee brains, with a higher number of connections between many of their parts. This, as well as a relatively larger frontal lobe, allows us much more of the luxury of abstract and logical thinking.
It is often said that humans and chimpanzees share 99% of the same DNA. The genetic comparison is not merely because of the nature of gene repeats and mutations. However, a better estimate is somewhere between 85% to 95%.
This figure may sound impressive, but most of the DNA is used for essential cell functions shared by all living things. For example, we have about half the same DNA as a banana. Nevertheless, people do not use this to emphasize how similar bananas are to us. So 95% do not say as much as they seem.
The chimpanzee has 48 chromosomes, two more than humans. It is believed that this is because, in a human ancestor, two pairs of chromosomes fused into a single pair.
Interestingly, humans have some of the least genetic variations of all animals so that inbreeding can cause genetic problems. Even two completely unrelated humans are genetically more similar than two sister chimpanzees.
How many species of chimpanzees are there?
Chimpanzees are often incorrectly called monkeys, but they belong to the taxonomic category of the ape, like us. The other great apes are orangutans and gorillas. Today, there is only one living human species: homo sapiens. In the past, many scientists tried to argue that there were several species of humans, and they often rushed to add that they belonged to the ‘superior’ species.
However, all human beings can produce fertile children, so we are all the same species. Chimpanzees, on the other hand, are two species: pan troglodytes, the common chimpanzee and pan paniscus , the graceful chimpanzee, or the bonobo. These two types of chimpanzees are entirely separate species.
Humans and the two species of chimpanzees evolved from a common ancestor, possibly sahelanthropus tchadensis, five to seven million years ago. Only the fossils of this ancestor remain.
Origin of man
The chimp is a wild animal. They are not domesticated like a dog or cat. They stay with their mothers until they are at least 5 years old. To be a pet, they must be removed from their mothers at a very early age. Baby chimpanzees are dependent on their biological mother.
However, at the age of five or six, the cute, helpless chimpanzee has become a muscular chimpanzee, too strong and intelligent for a human to handle. A mature chimpanzee possesses 5 to 6 times the strength of a human being. When they reach sexual maturity, their instincts emerge to escalate the hierarchy of domination, leading to aggression and potentially biting and damaging their environment.
At this point, the surrogate parent usually blocks the chimpanzee in a cage. Chimpanzees are strong, live long lives (sometimes more than 60 years), and are expensive to feed and house.
Meet Congo the Chimpanzee, the sensational abstract painter from the 1950s in London. The world of art, confused at best, took another jolt at right angles at the Bonhams auction house.
Amidst wild scenes, three paintings of a chimpanzee sold for £14,400, more than 20 times his estimate. At the same sale, a painting by Andy Warhol and a small sculpture by Renoir attracted so little interest that they had to be removed.
Chimpanzee crafts are believed to be the first works of art made by a non-human for public study. However, they were not executed by any ordinary chimpanzee. They were painted in the late 1950s by Congo, a famous chimpanzee resident at the London Zoo, who was hailed as the Cézanne of the ape world.
Picasso acquired one of the 400 Congo works, exchanged two of his paintings for one of the Congo chimpanzee. Moreover, Salvador Dalí was so fascinated by the ape’s canvases that he declared: “The chimp’s hand is almost human, Jackson Pollock’s hand is animal!”.
Tenders for the three Congo works together started at £1,000, had initially been given an estimated selling price of £600, £800 separately, and ended with two bidders struggling.
The victory went to Howard Hong, a private collector in Los Angeles who described himself as an enthusiast of modern and contemporary painting. He immediately issued a statement that could have come from Dalí’s phrasebook, saying that Congo painting “represents the complete evolution of humanity”.
Congo became a television celebrity in the late 1950s as the star of Zootime, an animal show presented at the London Zoo by Desmond Morris, the zoologist, and anthropologist. It became a more important cause when the Institute of Contemporary Art mounted a major exhibition of his work in 1957. Critics had a picnic, and the debate over the meaning of art was fanned furiously.
Morris’ experiments with Congo, an exceptionally intelligent chimpanzee, began when the zoologist offered him a pencil. He explained: “Congo took the pencil and placed a card in front of it. That is how I recorded it at that moment. Something strange was coming out of the end of the pencil. The first line. Would it happen again? Yes, it did, and over and over again.”
The zoologist soon realized that Congo could draw a circle and had an underlying sense of composition. When Morris drew a shape on half a piece of paper, Congo made marks on the other half to balance the structure. Later, the chimpanzee took paintings. He never managed to make a recognizable pictorial image, but his favorite design was a kind of radiant fan pattern.
Morris once said that it was indeed art for art’s sake. Congo was increasingly obsessed with his regular painting sessions. If I tried to stop him before he finished a painting, he would have a fit of screams. If I tried to convince him to continue painting after considering he was finished, he would stubbornly refuse. Congo died in 1964 of tuberculosis at the age of 10.
Congo, the chimpanzee painter:
The existence of an albino chimpanzee, all white, is documented. Curiously, one eye was blue and the other brown. They called the chimpanzee “pinky“. This chimpanzee was shy, commonly walked on his hind legs (while most chimpanzees use their hands when traveling), and did not like climbing trees.
Unfortunately, the chimpanzee died at the age of two when he fell from a tree. His aversion to climbing was well-founded. Pinky died before genetic tests were performed. Other albino primates or human-like creatures have been documented.
Undoubtedly, the Humanzee, who has just turned out to be a strange-looking chimpanzee and an albino gorilla at the Barcelona zoo, died at the age of 37 from skin cancer.
The pygmy chimpanzee (Pan paniscus), or Bonobo, lives in forests centrally located in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire). Bonobo’s habitat is in the Congo Basin. This area is south of an arch formed by the Congo River (formerly the Zaire River) and its headwaters, the Lualaba River, north of Kasai River.
Where do pygmy chimpanzees live?
Within the Congo Basin, pygmies inhabit several types of vegetation. The area is generally classified as a tropical rainforest. However, local agriculture and areas reverted to agriculture are intermingled. The species composition, height, and density of the trees are different in each, but the bonobos use all.
In addition to forested areas, swampy forests are produced that open up to swampy grassland areas, which are also used. Some bonobo populations may prefer to sleep in relatively small trees (15 to 30 m high), particularly those found in secondary growth forests.
Contrary to the implication of one of its common names, “pygmy chimpanzee“, this species is not particularly tiny compared to common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). The term “pygmy” may refer to the change to its location lives in an area inhabited by people who are often referred to as goblins.
Unlike their closest cousins (the common chimpanzees), they are not divided into subspecies. Bonobos are similar to two fingers the size of humans, with dark hair covering their bodies. The hair is generally longer than in common chimpanzees, and particularly on the cheeks, which are relatively hairless in P. troglodytes.
The parts of the body that are not covered with hair have a dark color throughout life. This contrasts with common chimpanzees, which have lighter skin, particularly during the younger years.
Bonobos are mainly knuckle-walkers, although they sometimes walk upright and do so more often than P. troglodytes. They also have longer limbs, especially the hind legs, compared to common chimpanzees.
Although sexual dimorphism exists with males about 30% heavier (37 to 61 kg) than females (27 to 38 kg), bonobos are less sexually dysmorphic than many primates. The average height is 119 centimeters for males and 111 centimeters for females. The average cranial capacity is 350 cubic centimeters.
How does it reproduce?
Bonobos are polygamous. Females can be contacted and copulate with any male in the group, except their offspring. However, the mating system can be confused with the use of sexual activity in these animals as part of social bonding.
Mating system (promiscuous)
The basic features of the life cycle of bonobos are little researched. Some of the seminal studies of this species have indicated that they have not yet been studied enough to provide data on age at sexual maturity or birth interval. Information on the demography of wild bonobos is minimal compared to that of chimpanzees.
How long do bonobos live?
There is limited information on bonobo longevity, and there has not been an ongoing study that has lasted longer than expected during the bonobo life cycle. The most extensive semi-continuous study of bonobos began in Wamba in 1976. At that time, the age of each individual was estimated, and, by extrapolation, a female who died in 1993 was between 45 and 50 years old.
Bonobos are social animals and travel in mixed companion groups: males, females, and juvenile descendants. Typically, they travel and feed groups of 3 to 6 individuals, but cannot exceed 10 individuals. Throughout their range, they gather temporarily in larger groups around abundant food but divide into smaller groups as they progress.
Are chimpanzees in danger of extinction?
Chimpanzees are an endangered species; their population in nature has been reduced by hunting (mainly meat). Also by habitat destruction through logging or agriculture, and commercial export for use in zoos and research laboratories.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) noted that, despite having one of the largest geographical ranges of great apes, chimpanzee populations had fallen significantly since the 1980s. Lions and leopards also share the same spaces with chimpanzees.
The chimpanzee Ham in Space
The United States used chimpanzees, rather than dogs, as test subjects before human flights. In what was intended to be the final test flight before a human launch, the chimpanzee Ham traveled a suborbital trajectory on January 31, 1961, using a Redstone rocket developed by Braun’s team.
Because the flight had experienced minor problems, Braun insisted on one more test flight with an unoccupied fake spacecraft. If, on the other hand, as initially scheduled, that March 1961 flight had transported an astronaut, the United States would have first been with a human being in space, although not in orbit.
Alan B. Shepard, Jr. made Mercury’s first crewed flight over a Redstone rocket on May 5, 1961.
The astronaut chimpanzee: